have divided these cultures in five period from their appearences to
the arrival of the Spanish Conquers.
Period : Chavín (1200 A.C. - 200 A.C.)
on the andes of Ancash, Chavín as a culture was the
first on reaching a meaning degree
which influenced the rest of the cultures. Chavin
proyected an influence over two very important cultures which
were Paracas in Ica and Pucará
Period (200 A.C. - 600 D.C.)
culture located on the
north coast , famous all over the world for the great discovery of
the Tomb of El Señor de Sipan. There was another
culture on the south coast,it was
called Nasca, very famous for its misterious Lines.
Another fabulous culturewas Tahuanaco, which centre
was located on the peruvian-bolivian Altiplano.
Period: Wari (600 D.C. - 900 D.C.)
this centuries Wari was the most developed
culture of all, which had an extension from the area
of Cajamarca through the north until Cerro Baul and
on the south until Arequipa and Sicuani. Its capital
located quite near to Ayacucho, was one of the most populated urban
centres in the pre-hispanic America.
Period (900 D.C. - 1400 D.C.)
were at least nine important culturesin this period: Chimú
and Chincha,on the coast. Cajamarca , Huanca, Chanca
and Ica, on the Andes. Colla and Lupaca
on the Altiplano. Chachapoyas on the north jungle.
Period: Inkas (1400 D.C. - 1532 D.C.)
have come out with two royal dinasties on the Old Tahuantinsuyo or
Inka Empire: Hurin and Hanan (in quechua:
"under" y "upper"),
which correspond to the begginning of the duality which makes the
Inka's Cosmovision so important.
Inkas who belong to first royal dinasty are: Manco Cápac, Sinchi Roca, Lloque
Yupanqui, Mayta Cápac y Cápac Yupanqui, who condensed their power
in a little territory surrounding Cusco. The second
royal dinasty begins with Inca Roca and it continues
with Yahuar Huaca, Wiracocha, Pachacútec, Túpac yupanqui, Huayna Cápac,
Huáscar and Atahuallpa.
reorganized the Inka Society and the
begginning of his greatest expansion.
1532, Francisco Pizarro on his third trip arrived to coast of Tumbes.
That same year he founded San Miguel de Piura,
the first soanish city in Perú and many months later,
he began to explore further , that's when Atahuallpa
and Pizarro had their first showdown, here Pizarro ambushed and
captured Atahuallpa and slaughtered his guards. Despite their huge
numerical inferiority, the heavily-armed spanish took advantage of
an already divided empireto launch their audacious attack, which
determined the end of this great culture. In january 1535,
Pizarro founded Lima, the capital ofhis governement,
under the name of "Ciudad de Reyes" or Royal City.
1542, Carlos I announced that Peru shall have a
Viceroyalty to represent him, which was quite
racist.The colonial society distinguished Spaniards from Criollos.
Under the High Criolla Society were, the half
criollos and mestizos and finally the hispanic population and
obviously the poorer.
second half of the XVIII century,
the aborigins tried to reveal their actual situation.
The rebellion of Juan Santos Atahuallpa was
followed by the rebellion of Túpac Amaru which
was the most important ofthe time. At the begginning
of the XIX century, the Spanish
monarchy was going through their worst crisis.
november the 8th, 1820, help cam from the outside
world, Don Jose de San Martin and his troopsarrived to the Bay of Paracas
(Ica), convoyed his troops to the north of the capital under the
protection of Lord Cochrane's squadron. At the
begginning of 1821 all the northers were sticking to
San Martin's Indenpendence plann and finally on july 28th
Don Jose de San Martin itself proclamed the
independence of Peru in Lima. In 1823 in the middle
of a political chaos Simón
Bolívar arrived to Lima and received absolut power
as a dictator. on august the 6th 1824 Bolívar
beated the Royal Troops at Pampas de
Junín, and on december the 9th that same year General Jose de Sucre
who gained a victory over the spanish and put the Viceroy Jose de la
Serna under arrest compulsing him to sign the "Capitulacion de
Ayacucho" an agreement that sealed the Independence of Peru and
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