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 PERUVIAN HISTORY
The Origins of Perú:
 
The first appearence of Men in the Andes was about 20 000 years ago, while Europe was experimenting the Stone Edge. Utensiles found at some caves such as Pikimachay in Ayacucho confirmed this early population.The great process of the domestication of plants and animals followed the first period of hunters and recolectors.  Some of the plants that the old peruvian cultivated were : potatoes, quinua, yuca, cotton, and corn. Around 2500 b.C., many villages where living thanks to the agriculture, which permitted the appearence of the first sedentary groups and the Andean culture.

Scientists have divided these cultures in five period from their appearences to the arrival of the Spanish Conquers.

First Period : Chavín (1200 A.C. - 200 A.C.)

Located on the andes of Ancash, Chavín as a culture was the first on reaching a meaning degree which influenced the rest of the cultures. Chavin proyected an influence over two very important cultures which were  Paracas in Ica and Pucará in Puno.

Second Period (200 A.C. - 600 D.C.)

Another culture located on the north coast , famous all over the world for the great discovery of the Tomb of El Señor de Sipan. There was another culture on the south coast,it was called Nasca, very famous for its misterious Lines. Another fabulous culturewas Tahuanaco, which centre was located on the peruvian-bolivian Altiplano.

Third Period: Wari (600 D.C. - 900 D.C.)

Around this centuries  Wari was the most developed culture of all, which had an extension from the area of Cajamarca through the north until Cerro Baul and on the south until Arequipa and Sicuani. Its capital located quite near to Ayacucho, was one of the most populated urban centres in the pre-hispanic America.

Fourth Period (900 D.C. - 1400 D.C.)

There were at least nine important culturesin this period: Chimú and Chincha,on the coast. Cajamarca , Huanca, Chanca and Ica, on the Andes. Colla and Lupaca on the Altiplano. Chachapoyas on the north jungle.

Fifth Period: Inkas (1400 D.C. - 1532 D.C.)

Scientists have come out with two royal dinasties on the Old Tahuantinsuyo or Inka Empire: Hurin and Hanan (in quechua: "under" y "upper"), which correspond to the begginning of the duality which makes the Inka's Cosmovision so important. 

The Inkas who belong to first royal dinasty are: Manco Cápac, Sinchi Roca, Lloque Yupanqui, Mayta Cápac y Cápac Yupanqui, who condensed their power in a little territory surrounding Cusco. The second royal dinasty begins with Inca Roca and it continues with Yahuar Huaca, Wiracocha, Pachacútec, Túpac yupanqui, Huayna Cápac, Huáscar and Atahuallpa.

Pachacutec reorganized the Inka Society and the begginning of his greatest expansion.

The Spanish Conquest:

In 1532, Francisco Pizarro on his third trip arrived to coast of Tumbes. That same year he founded San Miguel de Piura, the first soanish city in Perú and many months later, he began to explore further , that's when Atahuallpa and Pizarro had their first showdown, here Pizarro ambushed and captured Atahuallpa and slaughtered his guards. Despite their huge numerical inferiority, the heavily-armed spanish took advantage of an already divided empireto launch their audacious attack, which determined the end of this great culture. In january 1535, Pizarro founded Lima, the capital ofhis governement, under the name of "Ciudad de Reyes" or Royal City.

The Colonial Period

In 1542, Carlos I announced that Peru shall have a Viceroyalty to represent him, which was quite racist.The colonial society distinguished Spaniards from Criollos. Under the High Criolla Society were, the half criollos and mestizos and finally the hispanic population and obviously the poorer.

On the second half of the  XVIII century, the aborigins tried to reveal their actual situation. The rebellion of  Juan Santos Atahuallpa was followed by the rebellion of  Túpac Amaru which was the most important ofthe time. At the begginning of the  XIX century, the Spanish monarchy was going through their worst crisis.

The Independece 

On november the 8th, 1820, help cam from the outside world, Don Jose de San Martin and his troopsarrived to the Bay of Paracas (Ica), convoyed his troops to the north of the capital under the protection of Lord Cochrane's squadron. At the begginning of 1821 all the northers were sticking to San Martin's Indenpendence plann and finally on july 28th Don Jose de San Martin itself proclamed the independence of Peru in Lima. In 1823 in the middle of a political chaos Simón Bolívar arrived to Lima and received absolut power as a dictator. on august the 6th 1824 Bolívar beated the Royal Troops at Pampas de Junín, and on december the 9th that same year General Jose de Sucre who gained a victory over the spanish and put the Viceroy Jose de la Serna under arrest compulsing him to sign the "Capitulacion de Ayacucho" an agreement that sealed the Independence of Peru and South America. 

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